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When it comes to web development, it truly pays to always have the right tool for the right job. And in this case that tool is the programming language involved. Not all languages are equally good at everything, and back-end and front-end frameworks have altogether different purposes. A good website development company will have a team of developers that are proficient in numerous languages, so that they are ready to tackle any challenges in any kind of projects as they arise.

Top Languages for Web Development in 2022

Here’s a list of the top programming languages website development services are using today. We have segregated them by back-end and front-end languages. All of them are popular, and come with their own pros and cons.

HTML and CSS

While these are technically not programming languages, HTML and CSS are the cornerstone technologies behind the Word Wide Web, and form the backbone of web development today. For best results, they are used in conjunction with some of the core programming languages mentioned here. Every web developer must learn them, and they are relatively easy to master as well. HTML (HyperText Markup Language) creates the structure of the web pages, while CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is used to provide style, in order to make the pages more visually appealing.

Front-end Development

The front-end development process involves designing the face and UI of the website. This is important as these are the elements that a user can see and interact with, and has a direct relevance to user experience.

1. JavaScript

JavaScript is a widely used lightweight and interpreted scripting language.It runs over the built-in engine of a browser, and adds functionalities with simple commands through an HTML document. It has excellent browser support. JavaScript is fast, simple, versatile, and easily integrates with several other languages. You can use it for shorter codes as well as shorter compilation times, which leads to rapid development. The JavaScript framework has been used to create several other popular languages like VueJS, NodeJS, TypeScript, etc. In this blog, you may learn more on the best JavaScript frameworks.

2. TypeScript

TypeScript is a popular and modern programming language that is very useful for creating web applications. TypeScript has been built using JavaScript as a base, and the two have the same relation as C and C++. The most useful feature of TypeScript is that it adds an optional static typing to the JavaScript code. This is particularly helpful as you can catch any JavaScript type-related errors during the development phase itself. It makes the development of object-oriented code simpler for JavaScript. TypeScript also has a number of inbuilt debugging tools that makes web development a significantly easier process.

3. React

React, also known as ReactJS, has been built on the JavaScript framework. It was built by Facebook. Websites built using React tend to work faster, and provide smooth transitions between the various available elements. You can easily write HTML and convert HTML tags into React elements using JSX (JavaScript XML). React is highly recommended for creating enterprise applications and single-page applications. It is highly SEO-friendly, comes with a bunch of useful tools from the onset, and is supported by a very strong community.

4. Angular

Angular is one of the most popular front-end web application frameworks out there. It has  model-view-controller (MVC) architecture and allows easy development of several complex applications. It uses HTML for UI and is based on TypeScript, so it’s easy to understand and learn. It makes use of dynamic HTML and requires minimum coding, and allows you to build projects that have extensive functionalities as well as appealing designs.

5. Vue

Vue, or VueJS, is yet another JavaSCript-based framework that is popular for frontend development, particularly single-page applications. Vue comes with high amounts of flexibility, 2-way communication, and a great set of tools. With Vue, you have the ability to extend HTML with the help of HTML attributes called directives, which can be both built-in as well user-defined. It uses 2-way data binding, meaning it will choose the best methods for updating the dynamic page elements based on the input type. Vue combines particularly well with PHP and Laravel.

Back-end Development

The back-end development process involves building the behind-the-scenes workings of a website. This is important as the back-end is where information from the users go to be processed and the desired output generated in its raw format. Thus, it needs to be robust and well-built.

1. Python

Not only is Python a great programming language for beginners to learn coding for software development, it is also useful for web development, scripting, data science, and automation. Current trends such as big data, AI, and face recognition – all can be achieved best with the help of Python. Like JavaScript, Python too has a huge community support, and many useful frameworks, libraries, and tools. Using Python, you can create CPU-intensive web applications in no time. For example, Django is a popular framework that follows a model-template-views architecture, and can be used to create robust backends. Flask is another popular framework (sometimes classified as a microframework) that is more minimalist and gives you significantly more control.

2. PHP

PHP is easily one of the best languages for creating fully functional web applications and data-heavy websites. It is a dynamic, server-side scripting language, and half the websites on the internet use it. WordPress, the most popular website building application software and CMS in the world, has been built using PHP. Given its credibility, it also supports numerous third-party extensions and facilities like MySQL, IIS, and Apache. It can easily be used across all the major operating systems. PHP also has dedicated frameworks such as Laravel, a powerful tool with a model-view-controller (MVC) architectural pattern that lets you quickly develop web applications.

3. Ruby

Ruby is another excellent programming language that is great for CPU-intensive web development and easily building complex applications. It supports functional, procedural, object-oriented programing, and is compatible with multiple frameworks. For creating full-sized applications, you should choose the Ruby on Rails (or simply Rails) framework. Similar to PHP, it is a MVC framework that provides default structures for web pages, a web service, and a database. Ruby adheres to web standards strongly, and encourages as well as facilitates using JavaScript, CSS, and HTML for creating frontend UIs, and XML or JSON files for data transfer. The Ruby on Rails framework powers many popular websites such as Github, Airbnb, Shopify, GoodReads, Groupon, and Kickstarter.

4. NodeJS

NodeJS was built using Chrome’s V8 JavaScript engine, and provides you the ability to use JavaScript code for back-end and server side development. It was originally developed with real-time applications in mind, and particularly excels in that field. NodeJS is open-source, free, and runs on multiple platforms. It is very memory efficient since the coding it runs is single-threaded, non-blocking, and asynchronous. The asynchronous process means that it is ready to jump from one client-request to the next without having to wait for the computer’s file system to process it, thereby eliminating the waiting. Notable websites such as Netflix, PayPal, and Uber were built on NodeJS.

5. NET

ASP.NET is an object-oriented web development framework created by Microsoft for coding rich, interactive, and dynamic web pages, services, and intense applications. It is part of the Microsoft .Net platform, and thus runs only on Widows. It has a pure MVC architecture. Codes on ASP.NET can be written in C#, Visual Basic, Jscript, or J#. You will have access to data sources such as SQL, OLE DB, XML, and more. It also comes with an incredibly rich toolbox that helps you create applications very quickly.

Conclusion

To get an idea of what programming language or framework would be a good fit for the project at hand, it is important to ask yourself what your goals and expectations are. Accordingly, the correct language presents itself. A functioning web application consists of both back-end as well as front-end, and if the combination is chosen well the end-product will be an application that is fast, robust and good looking.