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Code Institute’s Daragh Ó Tuama explains what budding app developers need to know when it comes to programming languages.

App development is the intricate process of designing, implementing and developing mobile applications. The applications are either developed by independent professional freelancers or by a team of skilled developers belonging to a giant firm.

There are countless aspects to consider when it comes to application development, such as the size of the app, the design, the concept and many more. To obtain optimum results, a proficient developer should be knowledgeable in all of these areas.

Is it, however, simple to create an application? The answer is up to you. It is really simple to develop an app if you understand and practise adequately.

The first thing, even before choosing a programming language, one should decide on which platform they are writing the program for. As we all know, there are two major platforms for mobile applications: iOS and Android. So, to begin, choose one of the two options.

You can choose one or both, but you must be familiar with two concepts: native development and cross-platform programming.

With native development, developers choose one platform and produce programs exclusively for that platform. If you’re a native Android developer, you create native Android apps that only run on Android; similarly, if you’re an iOS developer, you build native iOS apps that only work on iOS.

Cross-platform development is the term used to describe applications that are created once and can operate on any platform, including Android and iOS.

After choosing the above options, one should learn the related programming languages.

Python

Whether it is software, website or app development, there is no way Python is not used in it.

The increasingly popular programming language, which is recognised for its simple syntax and robust features, has garnered a reputation among novices and professionals alike.

Python is used to programme the back-ends of several prominent applications that we use on a daily basis, such as YouTube, Instagram and Pinterest. We can see Python’s power by looking at the above apps, which are noted for their popularity, efficiency and security.

Other reasons to learn Python:

  • Easy to read, learn and write codes
  • It is an interpreted language
  • Free and open source
  • Has extensive library support
  • Python is flexible

Python is also widely used in various technology fields, including machine learning, data analytics and many more.

JavaScript

When it comes to creating applications for the web, there are some programming languages you must know to be considered a professional, and top of the list of must-know programming languages is JavaScript.

JavaScript is required for the distinctive features you put in your program to perform tasks seamlessly on any device or platform.

Also, it is a full-stack language, which means with JavaScript you can build an interactive and visually appealing front-end and an efficient and powerful back-end too.

Other reasons to learn JavaScript:

  • Since it is an interpreted language, the speed of execution is immaculate
  • The structure of the syntax is simple and easy to grasp
  • JavaScript works smoothly along with other languages
  • With JavaScript, developers can add rich features to their applications
  • It has multiple valuable frameworks such as jQuery, Angular, Vue and Svelte

Along with JavaScript frameworks, developers can develop platform-independent applications.

Java

Java is an approved language for developing Android apps. Therefore, to commence your app developer journey, studying Java will most likely not only help you master app development rapidly, but will also assist you in quickly understanding other relevant languages.

Java has its own set of open-source libraries, including a wealth of functionalities and APIs that developers may easily integrate into their coding.

Other reasons to learn Java:

  • Java is an object-oriented language
  • Java can execute in various settings, including virtual machines and browsers
  • Code reusability and portability
  • Strong memory management

Another upside of mastering Java is its omnipresence. Since Java is a versatile programming language, it is also employed in website and software development. By learning it, you can learn more than just app development and may be handy in the long run if you need to change careers.

Kotlin

Kotlin is yet another official language of Android development. This is thanks to its roots in Java. So yes, Kotlin is very similar to Java and may be thought of as a more advanced version of Java programming.

Kotlin allows developers to create more robust and complex mobile applications.

Other reasons to learn Kotlin:

  • Writing programs in Kotlin means less robust code
  • It’s fully compatible with Java
  • Developers can use Kotlin to construct platform-independent applications
  • It features a simple and straightforward syntax
  • Includes Android and SDK toolkit

Kotlin might be a wonderful and accessible alternative for novices who find Java difficult.

Dart

Dart is a relatively new programming language when compared to other languages that have been around for a long time.

It may be used on both the front-end and the back-end. The syntax is comparable to C, making it simple to pick up.

Another distinctive aspect of Dart is that it is a programming language created especially for Android development by Google.

Other reasons to learn Dart:

  • It has a clean syntax
  • It has a set of versatile tools to help in programming
  • Dart is portable
  • It is used by Flutter
  • Can write and run the code anywhere

Dart also allows developers to create web-based applications in addition to mobile apps.

Swift

Swift is a programming language built specifically for designing and developing mobile applications, but only for iOS.

Created by tech giant Apple, Swift is a multi-paradigm, general-purpose compiled programming language.

Prior to the introduction of Swift, the preferred and customary programming language for iOS app development was Objective C. Swift’s versatility and durability has supplanted the necessity for Objective C.

Other reasons to learn Swift:

  • It has a concise code structure
  • It has efficient memory management
  • Swift is fast to execute
  • It supports dynamic libraries
  • It is compatible with objective C

As one of the most popular programming languages for iOS app developers, Swift allows users to learn and develop applications quickly and easily.

C++

Although not exactly a preferred programming language for app development, with C++ developers can expect to create robust applications.

C++ is used to create Android apps and native app development. Mainly, using this programming language, games, cloud and banking applications are created.

Other reasons to learn C++:

  • C++ is a multi-paradigm programming language
  • C++ is an object-oriented programming language and includes classes, inheritance, polymorphism, data abstraction and encapsulation
  • Supports dynamic memory allocation
  • C++ codes run faster
  • It is a platform-independent language

Because C++ applications can run on any platform, developers can use it to create cross-platform apps for Android, iOS and Windows.

Learn core concepts

Having a solid grasp of fundamentals is necessary to become a versatile app developer. Without mastering them, building complex applications will become tedious.

The following are some fundamental notions in every programming language:

  • Variables
  • Data structures
  • Syntax
  • Control structures
  • Tools

Choose a good programming course

One needs a mentor to grasp and understand the intricacies of a programming language or a related profession.

Before choosing a course, make sure that course is for you. For example, if you are a beginner, choose courses that are created for beginners that can give you a generous tech stack. On the other hand, if you already have adequate programming knowledge, you can either choose the beginner ones or go for intermediate ones.

Join the community

Each and every programming language has a dedicated community that is active with a vast number of skilled developers. Joining such communities will help you keep up to date about the latest features and tactics of the particular language.

Some of the popular platforms for programming communities are:

  • Stack Overflow
  • Reddit subreddits
  • GitHub

For instance, if you are learning Python, join the Python community on any of the above platforms. The same goes for other programming languages.

Also, if you have any queries regarding any errors of concepts, you can find answers in these communities since most doubts you face are not new.

Build mini applications

While learning app development, try putting your knowledge into work during the learning period instead of waiting for the course to end.

Try building mini applications at first. It can be as simple as a Hello World app that displays ‘hello world’. Then try upgrading to the calculator, memo, weather forecast and many more.

Since programming is a skill that grows only through practise, it is essential to practise while learning.

While developing mini projects, it is also customary to face errors. Instead of relying on communities, try resolving the mistakes on your own. Doing so will enhance your problem-solving ability, which is a great skill that every recruiter looks for in a developer.

By Daragh Ó Tuama

Daragh Ó Tuama is the digital content and production manager of Code Institute. A version of this article previously appeared on the Code Institute blog.

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